The phenomenon of nationality in our species is a subset of group identity. Group/social identity, in turn, goes back
thousands (and millions) of years, to all past human societies, pre-human primates, and social carnivores. Through
countless centuries and millenia of observational learning and intergenerational transfers, human heritages of
nationality (the most prestigious and sovereign of our social identities) have solidified into cultural heritages.
in World History
traces the phenomenon of group identity from its pre-human evolutionary roots, to the prehistoric
development of uniquely human social characteristics, through the ancient,
medieval, and modern eras of world history.
From latter pre-history onwards, we identify three primary heritages
of nationality (sovereign group formation) in our
These are:
the Kinship-Ethnic Heritage, the Territorial-Civic Heritage, and the Pastoral-Charismatic Dependency Heritage


 Nationality in World History                                                                                                                     805 pp          

Acknowledgments                                                                                                                                      i-ii        

Preface/Introduction                                                                                                                                 1-20       

Section One: Definitions and Theory (1)                                                                                                  21        

1. “What Is A Nationality?” (28)

2. “Why Do We Create Nationalities?” (84)                                                                                         51-133

3. “How Have People Formed and Maintained Nationalities?” (36)                                               134-170

Section Two: How Have National Identities Evolved in European History? (2)                              170-171

4. “State Formation & Proto-Nationalities in the Ancient Near East” (70)                                      172-237

5. “Single and Multiethnic Nationalities in the Ancient Mediterranean” (94)                                238-332

6. “Rome, Venice, and the Third Nationality Cycle” (50)                                                                   333-383

7. “Portugal and Spain: From Pathfinders to Backwaters” (28)                                                       384-402

8. “Multiethnicity and the Making of English Nationality” (41)                                                        403-444

9. “First New Nation: Rise of the Dutch Model” (40)                                                                         445-485

10. “The Evolution of Russian National Identity” (33)                                                                       486-519

11. “The European Union: Supranational Unifier?” (29)                                                                   520-549

Section Three: How Have National Identities Evolved Beyond Europe? (2)                                  550-551

12. “The Yellow, the Yangtze, and the World’s Largest Nation” (34)                                              552-586

13. “The Origins of American National Identity” (35)                                                                         587-622

14. “The Limits of Rhetoric: Unifications and Articulations of Mexican Nationality” (31)             623-654

15. “Beyond Kinship: Nationality Through Tanzanian History” (26)                                                655-681

16. “Towards the Civic? Imperial and Modern India” (25)                                                               682-707

Conclusions and Notes:

17. Key Findings (40)                                                                                                                           

18. Lexicon (20)                                                                                                                                    749-769

   Index (35)                                                                                                                                         770-805
Bibliographies/References (in chapter)

Copyright 2008 Philip L. White and Michael L. White
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Ancient- First Nationality Cycle:
Ancient Egypt
'Sea Peoples'
Ancient- Second Nationality Cycle:
Roman kingdom  
Roman Republic  
Roman Empire  

Medieval Europe- Third Nationality Cycle:
Post-Roman Gaul  
Venetian Republic  

Early/Modern Europe:
England & U.K.
European Union  

Beyond Europe:
Ancient China  
Early America  
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The History of a Social Phenomenon